Beware the received wisdom on breakdown voltage

Breakdown voltage is the voltage at which the insulating layer of titanium oxide ruptures and leaves the exposed titanium subject to direct and rapid corrosion with the medium.

  • Breakdown voltage in a chlorinated medium: around 8V
  • Breakdown voltage in a medium without chlorine (< 100ppm): > 50V

However these values concern only uncoated titanium and are irrelevant when talking about TiMMO anodes. The crystallographic structure of the MMO coating is like a ceramic, so there is no contact between the titanium and the electrolyte. As a result a breakdown voltage level should never be reached.

Thus it is conceivable that an anode or anode string could be supplied with a voltage of 60V or more, without damaging it.

Applications Standard voltage (V)
Cataphoresis 200-400
Swimming pools 40
Cathodic protection 24
Water treatment by electrolysis 12